tion. Keyserling sees this "world-revolution"
as the uprising of tellurian forces, the Earth
opposing the Spirit. But telluric forces are
natural, cosmic, while the forces of to-day are
those of technical civilization.
In modern tendencies the influence of two
thinkers of the nineteenth century is very strongly
felt—the influence of Marx and Nietzsche. They
signify the end and the destruction of humanism.
Marx and Nietzsche are in conflict for the control
of the world. The influence of Nietzsche upon
fascism and national-socialism is unmistakable.
His influence is felt in the modern apotheosis of a
powerful leader, and in the development of a
cruel type of youth devoid of all sympathy with
suffering- Nietzsche himself, that solitary aristo-
cratic thinker, would turn away in horror from
the social results of his preaching. Nietzsche did
not like the idea of Pan-Germanism, he was not a
German nationalist and would probably suffer
pangs of disgust at the modern plebeian spirit,
devoid of all traits of nobility.
But influence works that way, in the sub-
terranean and subconscious sphere, and often
arouses forces which it was far from the thought
of the creative mind to set in motion. The his-
torical influence of Luther, for instance, moved in
quite a different direction from that which he in-
tended. Luther never thought that protestantism